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The Flowers of Canada

Updated: Nov 18, 2021

Canada Day is tomorrow, and there are many flowers that are particularly important to Canadians. Each province has its own provincial flower, and that’s a great place to start.

Alberta – Alberta Wild Rose

Of course, we live in Wild Rose country here in Alberta. This fragrant and plentiful native rose bush can be found everywhere: in parks, ditches, and even yards. While it's native to places in Asia, Europe and North America, in Canada it is synonymous with Alberta, and personally, I think we have the best flower.

British Columbia - Pacific Dogwood

These pretty white flowers from the pacific dogwood bush is the official provincial flower of British Columbia. The wood has been important to many of the local Indigenous tribes throughout history. It has been used for making bows and arrows or even knitting needles, and the bark can be used in tanning.

Manitoba – Prairie Crocus

In 1906, some Monitoban school children voted the prairie crocus as their favourite, and it became the official flower of Manitoba. It is unfortunately becoming more rare, but where you can still find them, they are beautiful harbingers of spring.

New Brunswick – Purple Violet/Viola

This vibrant purple perennial is not only lovely, but a popular choice for jams and cough syrups. It can be found blooming from May to July, especially in marshes and wet meadows. It does particularly well in New Brunswick, and can be seen in fields, lawns, and gardens throughout the province.

Newfoundland and Labrador – Purple Pitcher Plant

Not only is this provincial flower the best example of alliteration, it’s also the only carnivorous plant among the list. It is a striking flower that does particularly well in colder climates, though it is endangered in many places.

Northwest Territories – Mountain Avens

This flower blooms on an arctic-alpine evergreen, and, as the name suggests, grows well in the mountains. The white flowers can be seen in June and July.

Nova Scotia – Mayflower

These pink to white flowers grow on a shrub that is native to areas from Newfoundland to Kentucky. They are one of the first flowers to bloom in the Nova Scotian springs, and were adopted as its official flower in 1901.

Nunavut - Purple Saxifrage

This low-growing edible plant grows in arctic and mountainous regions, and flowers during the spring and summer, showcasing tiny, beautiful, purple flowers. They taste sweet and are often used in lieu of berries.

Ontario - White Trillium

The name trillium refers to the importance of the number three – there are leaves, three petals and three-sectioned seedpods, in these gorgeous white flowers. They are a favourite of the white-tailed deer that live in the area as well.

Prince Edward Island - Lady's Slipper

This orchid grows everywhere in Canada except BC, but PEI calls them officially their own. Despite this, they are actually relatively rare in PEI, so if you happen to be lucky enough to see them growing wild, don’t pick them!

Quebec - Blue Flag Iris

Quebec used to honour the Madonna lily as its provincial flower, but chose this vibrant blue flower to replace it in 1999. It is a much better fit for the province as it better resembles the fleur-de-lis and grows naturally in the area.

Saskatchewan - Western Red Lily

Traditionally, this perennial red lily was used as food and medicine by Indigenous peoples, but is now an endangered species in some areas. It is pollinated by hummingbirds and butterflies, making it a great addition to your garden.

Yukon - Fireweed

This beautiful, purple perennial herbaceous plant is ubiquitous in ditches all around the Northern Hemisphere, but recognized as the official flower in the Yukon. It’s also edible and a great source of Vitamin C.

We hope you enjoyed learning about the flowers from around our lovely country. Happy Canada Day!

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